REVIEW ARTICLE


New Insights on Low Vitamin D Plasma Concentration as a Potential Cardiovascular Risk Factor.



Mattia Bellan1, 2, 3, *, Paolo Marzullo3, 4
1 Division of Internal Medicine, “Sant’Andrea Hospital”, Vercelli,Italy.
2 Department of Translational Medicine,Università del Piemonte Orientale UPO, Novara, Italy.
3 Interdisciplinary Research Center of Autoimmune Diseases, Novara, Italy.
4 Division of General Medicine, Ospedale S. Giuseppe, I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Verbania, Italy


© 2018 Bellan and Marzullo .

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address Correspondence to this author at the Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte Orientale UPO, via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara, Italy. E-mail:mattia.bellan@med.uniupo.it


Abstract

The role of Vitamin D hormone in human health and disease is still debated. Recently, growing attention has been paid to its putative role in cardiovascular system homeostasis with several studies that suggested a correlation between low vitamin D levels and increased cardiovascular risk. Several mechanisms are involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases: systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, arterial hypertension and insulin resistance. In the present paper, we have revised the current literature supporting a role for vitamin D in the development of these pathogenetic processes. Finally, we have evaluated the current evidence linking vitamin D to atherosclerosis and its natural consequence, cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords: Vitamin D, Cardiovascular Risk, Cardiovascular Diseases, Insulin Resistance, Inflammation, Atherosclerosis.