REVIEW ARTICLE


Vitamin D, Inflammation and Immunity: Review of Literature and Considerations on Recent Translational and Clinical Research Developments



Amelia C. Trombetta, Sabrina Paolino, Maurizio Cutolo*
Research Laboratory and Academic Division of Clinical Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy


© 2018 Trombetta et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Research Laboratory and Academic Division of Clinical Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, IRCCS Policlinico San Martino, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV, 16132 Genova, Italy; Tel: +39 010 3537994, Fax: +390103537994; E-mail: mcutolo@unige.it


Abstract

The most relevant and recent literature findings linking exposure to sunlight, Vitamin D (VD), inflammation and immune system in health and disease, are reviewed.

Reduced sunlight exposure determined hypo-vitaminosis D to be common among patients or even healthy subjects, especially at higher latitudes. Numerous studies support the hypothesis that VD insufficiency could contribute to the higher autoimmune diseases incidence in the same geographic areas.

In the present review, the ways in which VD was reported to influence immune system, contributing to organism homeostasis or disease development are addressed. In fact, some of the hormone activities were recognised to determine stimulation or inhibition of immune system components.

Several diseases, where an association with VD deficiency was studied, are summarised. Finally, the rationale for optimization of substitutive/additive therapy with VD analogues and the last innovations regarding these drugs are mentioned.

Keywords: Vitamin D, 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, Hypo-vitaminosis D, Autoimmunity, Inflammation, Rheumatic diseases.