Serum Cytokine Profile in Asian Indian Patients with Takayasu Arteritis and its Association with Disease Activity



Ruchika Goel1, Jayakanthan Kabeerdoss1, Babu Ram1, John Antony Jude Prakash5, Sudhir Babji4, Aswin Nair1, Lakshmanan Jeyaseelan2, Visalakshi Jeyaseelan2, John Mathew1, Veeraraghavan Balaji5, George Joseph3, Debashish Danda1, *
1 Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Christian Medical College, Vellore-632004, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Biostatistics, Christian Medical College, Vellore-632004, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Cardiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore-632004, Tamil Nadu, India
4 Wellcome Trust Research Laboratories, Division of Gastro Intestinal Sciences Christian Medical College, Vellore- 632004, Tamil Nadu, India
5 Department of Clinical Microbiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore-632004, Tamil Nadu, India


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© 2017 Goel et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Christian Medical College, Vellore-632004, Tamil Nadu, India; Tel: +91-416-2282529; Fax: +91-416-2282288; E-mail: debashisdandacmc@hotmail.com


Abstract

Background:

Arterial inflammation Takayasu arteritis (TA) is an outcome of balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Comprehensive assessment of these cytokines is important for understanding pathogenesis and assessing disease activity.

Objective:

To study pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines representing different T-helper cell pathway in serum samples of Asian Indian patients with TA and to assess their association with disease activity.

Methods:

Consecutive Indian patients with TA were assayed for serum interferon-γ, interleukin-6, interleukin-23, interleukin-17, interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor- β levels at baseline and follow up visit. Patients were grouped into active and stable disease based on Indian Takyasu Arteritis clinical Activity Score-2010. Serum levels of these cytokines between active and stable disease and between baseline and follow up visits were compared by non-parametric tests.

Results:

Among 32 patients enrolled, 15 were classified as active while 17 as stable disease at baseline. IFN-γ levels were significantly higher in active disease than stable disease (p=0.0129) while other cytokines did not differ significantly between 2 groups. Serum levels of none of the cytokines changed significantly over 2 visits in both responders and non-responders. IL23 levels positively correlate with disease duration ((r=0.999; p<0.005). Modest correlation was observed between IFN-γ and IL23 levels at both baseline and follow up and between IFN-γ and IL-6 and CRP at follow up.

Conclusion:

IFN-γ levels are raised in active disease in TA and correlates well with other biomarkers of disease activity and proinflammatory cytokines. There is also a direct correlation between Il-23 levels and disease duration.

Keywords: Takayasu arteritis, Large vessel vasculitis, Cytokines, Biomarkers, Interleukin-6, Interferon-gamma, Asian Indians.